A new title in a chapter book series featuring African American and Latino boys that's full of kid-friendly charm and universal appeal. Will their dreams of pizza be dashed when the sub suspects that some of them have been cheating? This gently humorous installment in a chapter-book series about a diverse group of elementary schoolers by Coretta Scott King honoree Karen English offers spot-on storytelling, relatable characters and situations, and plenty of action.
Nice Try, Jane Sinner Grades 9— Prepare to fall hard for this hilarious, heartfelt gem of a book. The Vanishing Box Paperback. In a nail-biting hunt for a missing loved one, DI Edgar Stephens and the magician Max Mephisto discover once again that the line between art, life, and death is all too easily blurred. DI Edgar Stephens is on the case. As he searches for the killer, he begins to suspect that her fatal vanishing act may well be related to another case, the death of a quiet local florist.
Devil's Day Paperback. Every autumn, John Pentecost returns to the farm where he grew up, to help gather the sheep down from the moors for the winter. Very little changes in the Endlands, but this year, his grandfather—the Gaffer—has died and John's new wife, Katherine, is accompanying him for the first time. Witness Paperback. A superb piece of writing. He passed away in July Ariel Burger first met Elie Wiesel at age fifteen. The act of listening, of sharing these stories, makes of us, the readers, witnesses. The Escape Artists Paperback. The story brims with adventure, suspense, daring, and heroism.
The most infamous was Holzminden, a land-locked Alcatraz that housed the most troublesome, escape-prone officers. Its commandant was a boorish, hate-filled tyrant named Karl Niemeyer who swore that none should ever leave. Their plot demands a risky feat of engineering as well as a bevy of disguises, forged documents, fake walls, and steely resolve. Once beyond the watchtowers and round-the-clock patrols, Gray and almost a dozen of his half-starved fellow prisoners must then make a heroic mile dash through enemy-occupied territory toward free Holland.
Drawing on never-before-seen memoirs and letters, Neal Bascomb brings this narrative to cinematic life, amid the twilight of the British Empire and the darkest, most savage hours of the fight against Germany. At turns tragic, funny, inspirational, and nail-biting suspenseful, this is the little-known story of the biggest POW breakout of the Great War. Fever Year Grades 7— America has declared war on Germany and is gathering troops to fight.
The flu is known to be dangerous to the very old, young, or frail. But the Spanish flu is exceptionally violent. Soon, thousands of people succumb. Then tens of thousands. What made the influenza of so exceptionally deadly—and what can modern science help us understand about this tragic episode in history? Go, Goats!
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Grades 2—5. Photo-packed series explores the stories and science behind animal sanctuaries. Includes full-color photos, graphics, and maps. Start with the eyes! Lucia is a member of what the farm staff calls the Underfoot Family. It's a group of more than fifty animals - goat, sheep, chickens, ducks, and even a pig - who have free reign of the farm. While the staff works hard to rescue , recover , rehabilitate and release all of the farm animals who come to the sanctuary, not every animal will leave -- Lucia is one who will spend the rest of her days in the comfort of the sanctuary, watching babies be born, new friends come and go, and welcoming a new group of campers every summer with a warm heart and a gentle head butt.
What is life like at Catskills Animal Sanctuary? Lucia will tell you everything! The Winter Army Hardcover. The epic story of the U. The German Wehrmacht , in contrast, had many well-trained and battle-hardened mountain divisions, some of whom by blocked the Allied advance in the Italian campaign. Starting from scratch, the US Army developed a unique military fighting force, the 10th Mountain Division, drawn from the ranks of civilian skiers, mountaineers, and others with outdoor experience. The resulting mix of Ivy League students, park rangers, Olympic skiers, and European refugees formed the first specialized alpine fighting force in US history.
In the months that followed, at a terrible cost, they spearheaded the Allied drive in Italy to final victory. The Stars We Steal Grades 7— Engagement season is in the air. But old habits die hard, and as Leo navigates the glittering balls of the Valg Season, she finds herself falling for her first love in a game of love, lies, and past regrets.
Fans of Katharine McGee and Kiera Cass will be dazzled by this world of lost love and royal intrigue. Now You See Them Paperback. The new decade is going well for Edgar Stephens and his good friend the magician Max Mephisto. Edgar is happily married, with children, and promoted to Superintendent. Max has found fame and stardom in America, though is now back in England for a funeral, and a prospective movie job. But when an investigation into a string of disappearing girls begins, Emma sees her chance to get back in the action. When two more girls go missing, both with ties to the group, the stakes climb ever higher, and Max finds himself drawn into his own search.
Who will find the girls first? And will they get there in time? Geisel Honor winner Mary Sullivan humorously and deftly delivers a sweet spin on cat-and-dog rivalry. These flowers grow in clusters and are bright green with a very leafy ball like appearance. There are currently about 80 different varieties of hops cultivated from all around the globe, with the biggest producers being Germany, Ethiopia, The United States, China, and Czech Republic. Hops are prepared for brewing after cultivation by drying them in a oats house. Occasionally, an undried "wet-hop" is used to brew as well.
The Alpha Acids found in Hop resins moderately fight bacteria and help out with the fermentation process. The Beta acids the other of two hop acids give the beer the trademark bitter aroma. Bitterness contributed by the added hops is determined by the alpha acids are isomerized during the boiling and the amount of hops used. Hops used to enhance flavors and aromas are added later towards the end of the brewing process so that their acids can impart their characteristics into the wort without completely evaporating away.
As it is a temperate climate component of agriculture, varieties used in certain beers and beer styles vary by region and country. Hops have a moderate preservative like quality, which helped form the India Pale Ale, a beer favored by ship going merchants sailing goods to and from India. The IPA was favored because of the relatively high amount of hops used to craft it, giving it a longer shelf life for long voyages. Hops are not used in the brewing of all beer styles. The hopback operates like a filter either naturally, through a fresh layer of hops flowers filtering out trub debris , or as a removal tool for all solid materials including hops pellets, hops flowers, and other ingredients.
Independent breweries can be family owned and operated, or controlled by a private organization or group. Subsidiary breweries are not independent, regardless of whether the owner is a private company or not. Independent brewing companies can consist of multiple brewing facilities. International Bitterness unit IBU - A unit of measurement of bitterness, one of the seven basic tastes.
Determined by a spectrophotometer and solvent extraction, the bitterness of a beer is directly proportional to the amount of hops used during the brewing process. A larger amount of hops will increase bitterness, while higher use of other ingredients, especially Malt, will decrease bitterness. Bitterness can be overshadowed by malt, but the presence of bitter ingredients will still raise an IBU, even if the beer doesn't taste as bitter as a beer with a lower IBU.
In essence, a stout can have an IBU of 45, but because it contains a lot of malty ingredients, it will taste sweeter: potentially sweeter than some red or amber ales scoring less than Generally, IBUs remain fairly constant with the style unless the beer is specifically brewed uniquely to offer a new experience, or is just spoiled or something went wrong during the brewing process.
Depending on the jurisdiction for weights and measurements , a keg made of aluminum or stainless steel can vary in terms of volume and other dimensions. Kegs usually contain Krausening - A variation of secondary fermentation in which immature beer or wort is added to the brew after primary fermentation in order to add yeast induced results. See Secondary Fermentation for more information.
Lacing - Caused by carbonation, viscosity, and alcoholic content, this is the residue left by the foam head as the beer moves down a glass as it is consumed. Beers with a higher level of alcohol and carbonation will typically leave more lacing, while heavier beers with lower carbonation levels will leave almost no patterns on the glass. This is analyzed as a component of a beer's look visual character. Lactose - The natural sugar found in milk products. This is a disaccharide sugar which is derived from galactose.
It is the subject of discussion for those who are lactose intolerant and cannot consume any dairy products. Like gluten free beers, those with dietary restrictions need to be aware of a beer contains lactose. Most beers Ales, Wheats, Lagers do not contain lactose as it is not fermentable by yeast and would affect the flavors of the resulting brew. Certain stouts, however are brewed with lactose intentionally included in order to give a beer a sweet, creamy, or "milky" character.
Because the sweet lactose remains in its unattenuated form after fermentation it makes the beer sweeter. Lagering - A type of brewing process where beer is cold fermented and bottom fermented. This differs from top fermented, warm fermenting ales, which take less time to ferment.
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Lagers take longer because the cool temperatures decrease the level of yeast metabolic activity, slowing down the conversion of sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Lager is the German word for storage, reflecting the relatively longer duration of a wort's time spent in a fermentation tank. Lautering - The step in the brewing process in which liquid wort is separated from the mash after mashing has occurred.
There are usually three steps to lautering: Mashout, Recirculation, and Sparging. The entire process occurs in the Lauter Tun, a vessel designed specifically for the process of lautering. Mashout is the process of heating up the entire mixture to about degrees F which further liquefies the mash and helps to enable enzymes to extract sugars from malt starches.
This is done by either adding hot water or introducing external heat. Recirculation is the mixing and redistributing of mash to wort ingredients in order to filter out of the solid materials in sand like mash per se filters. Sparging is the process of slowly, delicately, and gradually trickling water through the mash to draw out any sugars. Lingering - An adverb used to describe a finish or aftertaste of a beer. A lingering aftertaste is detectable for relatively long amounts of time, as its flavors leave impressions on the taste buds toward the back of the tongue and mouth.
A lingering finish in terms of a beer's feel can come in the form of crispness, dryness, or warming effects, for some. Different styles will exhibit different lengths of lingering. Look - The overall appearance of a finished beer, with aspects including color, carbonation, foam head, pouring, lacing, and clarity. Macrobrewery - A large company whose assets collectively produce more than 2,, US Barrels of beer annually. These companies' beer is usually produced in massive commercial breweries and distributed around the world. Most often, holding companies and publicly traded corporations are the parent company for these kinds of breweries.
They have a generally poor reputation among those in the craft beer world due to their products' general lack in quality, taste, or character. A macrobrewery can, by definition, be considered a craft brewery as long as it produces less than 6,, US Barrels annually and is independently owned and operated. Malt - A cereal grain which has been roasted or dried and prepared for sugar extraction and brewing. Malted grains, such as barley, rye, oats, wheat, and others contain both sugars and enzymes which interact with each other when hot water is introduced to the grain a process called mashing.
Germinated cereals become malts through the process of malting, which takes place at a malt house. Different malts will be used to create different characteristics in varying beer styles, including color roasted malts produce darker colors , aroma coffee and chocolate for dark malts , viscosity typically darker beers have higher viscosities and have a fuller body , and of course, taste. Generally, malts will add sweetness to a beer, as opposed to hops, which add bitterness. Malt Extract - The concentrated sugars extracted from a malt's starch via mashing.
This process uses hot water to activate the embedded enzymes within the malt which draw out the sugars needed for fermentation. Malt extract is produced by concentrating the post mashing wort into either a syrup or dry form Liquid malt extract or dry: LME and DME, respectively. Extract can be added to the wort directly in place of malting, mashing, and lautering.
This process takes place in a malthouse, a facility in its simplest form equipped with a germination floor, a fireplace kiln , a massive sieve to remove shoots , and a place for storage and aging. Germination takes place at about degrees F. The grains are first dried to Maltose - A disaccharide sugar formed from two linked molecules of glucose. This is the type of sugar commonly found in barley and other germinating cereals grain.
Barley goes through the process of malting after which the available enzymes needed for converting maltose from the grains are maximized. The starches of barley or other grains are processed into maltose during mashing by way of the enzymes also known as amylases. Maltose is fermentable by yeast. Mash - A mixture of grist ground up grain or malt and hot water, used to prepare a wort. The grains contained in the mash have enzymes which, when activated by hot water, extract maltose, glucose, and other fermentable sugars from grain starch, with the resulting liquid ready for boiling.
Microbrewery - An independent brewery which produces relatively small amounts of beer on an annual basis and is usually involved in the manufacturing of craft beer.
The American Brewers Association defines a microbrewery as a single facility company which produces less than 15, US Barrels each year and is independently owned. Microbreweries make up the vast majority of brewing establishments in the United States.
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In Japan, strict tax laws define microbreweries as ones producing less than 16, US Gal 60, liters. These are known as Ji Biru "Local Beer". The main law was introduced in and allowed small breweries producing less than 2,, liters to obtain brewing licenses. In the UK and Germany, the microbrewery "small brewery" in Germany threshold exists at 5, hectoliters or 4, US Barrels of annual output.
Nearly 1, of these small breweries exist in Germany today. Milling - The process of grinding grains and other solid cereal material in order to maximize surface area of the ingredient more flavor, more active enzymes, more color, etc ; reduce the overall volume of the ingredients for transport and storage , and pulping removing unwanted elements or aspects of the material, such as shells, chaff, or husks.
Properly milled grains are necessary for the yeast in a wort to extract all of the sugars for attenuation. Better milled cereals also mean more pronounced or complex flavors, and a richer, deeper color depending on the malt. During the brewing process, many kinds of minerals are used as additives to change the characteristics of the resulting beverage. Gypsum, for example, makes water taste harder, giving beer a clearer appearance and a drier finish.
These are usually attached to a restaurant as a brewpub or eventually grow into one. Often the result of successful homebrewing. Nitro - Nitrogen N is an element which exists primarily as a gas with an atomic number of 7. Used for many applications, Nitrogen is used specifically in the brewing process as an alternative replacement or used with to Carbon Dioxide CO2 in order to add pressure to kegs and other vessels containing stouts and ales.
The purpose of this is to add a creamy foam head with smaller, more concentrated bubbles which is desirable on maltier beers. Guinness invented the widget which is packaged in cans and bottles and allows nitrogen charged beers to be distributed in other means than kegs without the risk of losing the trademark creamy foam head. Oktoberfest - The annual Bavarian harvest festival which takes place starting in Late September, and running for 16 days until the first weekend in October.
More than 5 million people from around the world attend the festival each year making it the world's largest fair, and one of Germany's most famous annual events. Beer is served in 1 liter stein glasses. The festival was originally a royal event, but the focus has shifted to celebrating the annual harvest and agriculture in general. Pitching - A term used by brewers meaning the action of adding yeast or hops into the appropriate equipment container. Plato - A unit of measurement expressing the amount of fermentable materials left in a wort.
This is displayed on a hydrometer as a percentage, and helps determine whether a beer is done fermenting or not. This differs from gravity above in that it is expressed as the unfermented extract, rather than the resulting ethanol. This is also used by brewers to determine whether a beer has completed fermentation or not or if the yeast isn't healthy. Pour - How a bartender, beer drinker, or server pours a beer into a glass will determine the final quality of how a beer will be perceived.
An improper pour can ruin the carbonation, foam head, and crispness of a beer by activating too much carbon dioxide upon contact of a glass. Likewise, not pouring a nitro canned beer "hard" enough will result in a lower quality foam head, lower carbonation action, and as a result, more faint aromas. Pour as a visual element can be smooth or choppy, depending on both the properties of the beer in a proper pour, and the level of carbonation action, the physical interaction between the beer and the glass. Certain breweries, such as Guinness of Dublin, stresses that their customers can technically refuse to accept a beer which has not been poured to their own specifications.
Typically, lagers, ales, and some stouts are poured into a glass tilted at a 45 degree angle, in order to prevent a "hard," or straight in pour. This kind of pouring will result in an elevated level of carbonation action, increasing the foam head, and emphasizing the aroma of the beer, though this is not always desirable. Preservative - Pertaining to brewing, the hops used during the brewing process which act as a natural preservative. Hops were discovered to have preservative properties in England during the era of global merchant trade and the British Empire.
The IPA India, of course was an invented beer style favored by sea faring merchants who were looking for a beer with a relatively long shelf life especially without storage in cool cellars. Priming - The process of fermenting a wort directly into the vessel in which it is served from, usually the bottle.
This is done by adding a certain amount of unfermented wort or sugars and sometimes yeast into a beer before its bottle is sealed off with a cap. Further fermentation takes place, completing the brewing process, as opposed to bottle conditioning, which a beer has already completed fermentation, and no alcohol is added during conditioning in most cases. A beer can be partially or fully fermented in a bottle using this method. Public Company - A corporation whose value is sold and held in the form of common stock to private individual and institutional investors.
Many of these companies are valued in the tens of billions of dollars. In small or older towns, the pub was the focal point of social activity, commonly located at the center of the settlement and used as a gathering place. A pub often serves food along with beer, wine, and spirits, known as pub food. Recreational games such as darts, foosball, and pool are common at pubs. Often more casual than a formal restaurant, and more laid back and quieter than a bar or club, the pub atmosphere has bred a number of cultural associations, including fresh, real beer, rock music, friendly folk, sports on the TV, and uncrowded scenes.
Pubs will often have a much wider and specialized selection of beer on tap as opposed to normal restaurants or bars and clubs. Rating - A number between 1 and 5 which is given to a sampled beer by Unquestionable Taste's editors. This number is the standard unit of measurement determined by five criteria: Look, Feel, Aroma, Taste, and Overall Experience.
The rating system is set up in a numerically proportionally skewed manner in order to emphasize good beer and allow for the detailed differentiation between good, notable beers of similar quality. Our scale ranges between 1. Nothing can get lower than a 1. Simply put, the difference between 4. For more information on the rating scale, please visit the full list page. Refrigeration - The process of removing heat from one medium, material, or location, into another.
Aside from cask ales, most beer needs to be stored and served at least somewhat cold in order to be fully appreciated and kept healthy. Regional Brewery - A brewery that falls between the categories of a microbrewery and a macrobrewery. Regional breweries produce more than 15, US barrels, but less than 2,, US barrels of beer each year. Reinheitsgebot - Also known as the German Purity Law, this is a though made official on April 23, piece of German legislation which dictates the ingredients that can be brewed in beer.
Beers that are crafted in compliance with this law originally contained only water, barley, and hops. Yeast was not an officially recognized ingredient until the Vorlaufiges Biergesetz, which allowed brewers to use yeast for bottom fermented beers, and other kinds of malts and sugars for top fermented beers.
Since the formation of the European Union, breweries in other sovereign countries that were once included in the Germanic sphere of influence had to abide by the Reinheitsgebot as well. The rule has since been expanded to include most ingredients found in popular beer styles around the European Continent, though many brewers still claim to follow the strict original Reinheitsgebot as both a form of tradition, and as marketing leverage.
Review Featured - For the purposes of this website, a Featured or Full review is an in depth look at a beer's full character profile. These reviews are written based on tasting and review notes, which are taken directly from the beer while it is being analyzed enjoyed, really. These notes are then processed into a character profile which includes various aspects concerning four main categories of quality: Look, Aroma, Feel, and Taste. When reading these reviews, you'll often come across certain words like choppy, malty, lingering, full bodied, aromatic, and so on.
These and other descriptive adjectives are used to convey an objective and unbiased view inside the true quality of a particular beer. When a review is being written or notes are recorded, it is the duty of the reviewer to approach each and every beer with a standard level of unbiased fairness. A brewery, brand, or style should not, and does not establish any preconceived notions or prejudices which dictate how one thinks a beer will satisfy their senses. Reviews follow a standard formula from selecting a beer to be reviewed and enjoyed, of course , all the way to the publishing of a final written online review, which usually includes background information about a brewery, beer knowledge, some history, or just a witty story which the beer reminds us of.
All beer reviews are written entirely in our own words and are not influenced by the reviews or words of other beer enthusiasts or critics. In this way, we can assure you that what you read on this website is an honest, original, and objective perspective about a beer that may be on your prospective "to try" list. Seasonal Beers - Non-permanent, temporary brews made available to the public by the brewery to signify a change in seasons, an annual festival, or other routine event.
Though every beer style can be enjoyed in year round, all four seasons of the calendar year have many specific seasonal beer styles which fit the environment, weather shifts, or holidays. Heavier beers, such as dark ales, porters, and stouts are preferred during colder fall and winter months due to their warming effect. Bocks, pales, lagers, and wheats are seasonal during hot summer months, when a lighter, refreshing beer is more desirable.
The spring can feature holiday related styles such as stouts and red ales for St. Paddy's day , along with the fall's marzens, and oktoberfests for the German festival. Larger craft breweries have the capacity and know how to produce impressive portfolios of seasonal beers, while very small breweries can't produce them based on economies of scale, and larger breweries simply choose not to.
Secondary Fermentation - A form of aging, conditioning, or maturing of beer by which more beer is transferred to another container a bottle, cask, or fermenting container and set to ferment for another period of time. Sometimes, more yeast and possibly more fermentable sugars are introduced to enhance flavors or increase alcoholic content. The beer is removed from the "trub" known as the dead yeast and other materials which settle at the bottom of the primary fermentation tank.
This debris can produce undesirable flavors, or even harmful compounds. The period of secondary fermentation can take between a couple weeks to many years, depending on the amount of yeast and sugars used, and the style of beer per se. Wort can be added to the beer in the case of Krausening. Bottle fermentation or conditioning will remain unfiltered and appear hazy and cloudy with the yeast contents still inside. Sediment - The physical contents of a conditioned, packaged, and distributed beer which settle at the bottom of a bottle until poured. When poured, these particles of usually wheat, yeast, or other ingredients can float around due to turbulence, giving the beer a cloudy or hazy appearance.
Sommelier Beer - Otherwise known as a Cicerone, or beer snob, this is a professional specializing in the know how of beer and the beer industry. They need to be certified through any one of many private organizations related to the brewing industry. Their range of knowledge spans all aspects of brewing and beer, including, but not limited to: beer styles, brewing, reviewing, ingredients, equipment, draft systems, food pairing, glassware, serving, history, and the makeup of the industry.
In wine, an expert is also called a sommelier, and must be certified through education. Standard Reference Method SRM - Usually ranging from 2 to 70, this is a popular mathematical system used by brewers and beer critics to measure the color and darkness of a beer. Darker beers receive higher numbers, which are determined by the wavelength, intensity, attenuation, dilution, and diffusion of light passing through the beer. In its essence, the formulas used to calculate the SRM value of a beer measure the absorption of a beam of light at nm while it passes through 1 cm of beer.
The resulting number is the beer's ability to absorb of light. Style - A set of characteristics which define the category of a beer's composition from the point of view of the brewery. The brewing process, ingredients, alcoholic strength, colors, and flavors all define a beer's style. There are hundreds of individual beer styles in the world, some no longer being produced, some only in very modest quantities in very local geographic areas, and some dominating the rest such as lagers, which make up more than half of the total sum of beer produced in the world by volume. Subsidiary - A company or brewery or set of breweries which are either fractionally or wholly owned by another, larger company with at least a controlling interest in the brewery.
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Sugar - Carbohydrates which deliver a sweet taste and come in a variety of forms. They are used as food for the brewer's fermenting yeast which converts sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Notable examples include glucose, fructose, galactose, maltose, sucrose, and lactose. In the brewing process, these sugars can be extracted from the grains or malt extract , or from additives such as honey, maple syrup, fruit, and others. Sugars are high in Calories kcal per g , and are almost all Carbohydrates Tap - A valve controlling the flow, containment, or release of a liquid or gas.
A tap can be used to control temperature as in a kitchen sink , volume such as spigot or faucet , and containment or complete release as in a shower with basically on or off positions. For beer, there are three kinds of taps which is the only word used to describe the value, not faucet, spigot, or others : pressure-dispense nitro, CO2, or other gas at a bar , keg tap portable, for use at a party, picnic, or outdoor festival , and a cask beer tap forced from cask by either gravity i.
All of these taps are used for different purposes, in different environments, and for different kinds of beer, and beer containers. Taps are used for cask beers and draught beers served at bars, pubs, and restaurants. Taste - The primary of the five traditional senses when consuming beer. Though a beer's appearance, smell, and mouthfeel are very important to brewers, and the people who enjoy their products, taste is by far the most notable and memorable characteristics of beer.
Taste is a chemical reaction between the beer's ingredients and the receptors of the taste buds, which interpret the sense of taste. There are seven basic tastes which describe the sense: Saltiness, Sweetness, Bitterness, Umami, Metallic, Piquance, and Sourness, as none of these tastes can be replicated by any combination of the other six.
Taste is the fourth and final of the four components of a beer's character profile excluding finish, a product of both taste and feel together as the other three can be analyzed before any beer is consumed. Turbulence - A property of a liquid or gaseous substance which dictates how the fluid flows or moves when introduced to a separating agent. A simple example of turbulence can be seen when a boat flows through a river. The turbulent water is caused by the boat slicing or diffusing the material. An airplane is involved in many forms of turbulent fluid properties. A wing lead is smooth to avoid causing much turbulence so that it can effectively cause lift.
If the air is turbulent before the plane flies through it, lift is decreased at sudden and erratic rates, causing the cabin to drop altitude suddenly which can injure people when they're not buckled up. Turbulence can lower the density of the air flowing under the wing, leaving gravitational force to do what it does all of the time. When pouring a beer, turbulence is introduced when a beer is served or poured into a new medium, e.
When a beer remains unmoved in a vessel, no forces are being introduced to it, and no turbulence is taking place. Turbulence is introduced during the transfer of the beer, and can create desirable results in terms of a proper pour. Turbulence is needed to create an adequate foam head, incite carbonation action, distribute sediment evenly, and enhance aromatic properties of a beer. Too much turbulence, however, can introduce too much foam and carbonation into a beer, making it frothy.
Viscosity - A property of a fluid substance which measures the resistance or lack of of said substance to deform in shape when outside stress or force is applied to it. For example, water has a lower viscosity than maple syrup. Water will splash and slosh around when spilled from a glass, while maple syrup with slowly ooze out of the glass, deforming much slower than the body of water. Fluid motion is directly measured against viscosity.
Water has a low viscosity, which allows boats and fish to flow through it. Replace the Great Lakes with massive puddles of molasses, and Gordon Lightfoot would have had a completely different song about the Edmund Fitzgerald. Viscosity is like inertia. It is a resisting property. All liquids have it, and it can never be valued at zero. It is a constant at an equal atmospheric pressure and temperature.
Like Inertia, the less viscous a beer or any liquid is, the more likely it is to move about when an outside force is introduced to it. In terms of beer, viscosity is a property of a beer's feel. A higher viscosity beer will feel thicker, heavier, smoother, and slower in terms of its flow. Stouts, porters, dark ales, and dark lagers typically have a higher viscosity than lagers, pales, bitters, and weissbiers.
It is usually easier to quickly drink a beer with a lower viscosity, and beers with higher viscosities typically have bigger bodies, lingering aftertastes, and more pronounced finishes. Water - A chemical substance which is essential for all known forms of life. Comprised of the chemical compound dihydrogen monoxide H2O , water molecules are held together by relatively weak hydrogen bonds, while the three atoms in each molecule are held together with strong covalent bonds.
H2O is the base for which beer's volume and form is created. In brewing, water is a medium for all of the processes of brewing see above , including final consumption. Water will retain any solid materials, aromas, tastes, colors, alcohols, and carbon dioxide. Hard water, which contains minerals such as Gypsum, will deliver a drier taste and finish. Fresh, clean, naturally filtered, and crystal clear water is essential for favorable brewing results - any foreign containment can ruin an entire beer, costing breweries time and money. The source of water is also integral for the taste of the beer.
Wheat - A grassy cereal grain which is grown and cultivated on a massive worldwide scale in mostly temperate climates. On average, every person in the entire world eats 67 kG of wheat each year. It is a primary food staple in every region of the world, and is the third most cultivated cereal after corn maize and rice. Aside from being a fermentable malt or grain for beer, wheat is found in most foods and beverages which use flour, including pasta, bread, cookies, breakfast foods, and well vodkas among other stuff, of course.
Wheat is used in weissbiers and is typically unfiltered, giving wheat based beers their trademark hazy or cloudy appearance. Wheat beers also usually produce relatively higher amounts of foam head when poured. Wheat beers are usually sweeter and lighter bodied than darker ales and stouts. Because of its gluten protein content, wheat along with barley and rye and everything made with it including everything made with traditional flour , cannot be consumed by those with a gluten sensitivity, especially those diagnosed with Coeliac.
Many breweries have recognized this oft overlooked small, but growing, market for gluten free beers including those who want a "healthier" beer, but can consume wheat , and have produced lines of beers consumable by those with Coeliac. About 1 in every people of the world has Coeliac. Wort - The premature, unfermented liquid extracted from a mash which contains the fermentable sugar content used to make beer. Wort is made from crushing a dried malt wheat, barley, rye, etc into a grist, then mixed in with very hot water, which, during a slow heating process, enables enzymes to extract sugars from the malt's starch.
The mixture is called a mash at this point. These sugars will be used as food for metabolizing yeast which are converted to alcohol and carbonation CO2. The mash then goes through lautering, the step in the brewing process which separates solid materials from the liquid called wort at this point. Hops are then added to the wort for a variety of reasons and then the whole liquid is boiled intensely and evenly. Fermentation takes place from this point on.
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